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References, PFOA PFOS, AFFF, PFAS Treatment


  1. http://Chemspider.com/Chemical-structure.67068.h^ Cheng J, Psillakis E, Hoffmann MR, Colussi AJ (July 2009). "Acid dissociation versus molecular association of perfluoroalkyl oxoacids: Environmental implications". J. Phys. Chem. A. 113 (29): 8152–8156. doi:10.1021/jp9051352. PMID 19569653.
  2. Jump up^ Rayne S, Forest K, Friesen KJ (2009). "Extending the semi-empirical PM6 method for carbon oxyacid pKa prediction to sulfonic acids: Application towards congener-specific estimates for the environmentally and toxicologically relevant C1 through C8 perfluoroalkyl derivatives". Nature Precedings.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b Governments unite to step-up reduction on global DDT reliance and add nine new chemicals under international treaty. Geneva: Stockholm Convention Secretariat. 8 May 2008.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b Shankar, Anoop; Jie Xiao; Alan Ducatman (2011-10-15). "Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Chronic Kidney Disease in US Adults". American Journal of Epidemiology. 174 (8): 893–900. doi:10.1093/aje/kwr171. PMC 3218627. PMID 21873601. Retrieved 2011-10-10.
  5. Jump up^ Paul AG, Jones KC, Sweetman AJ (January 2009). "A first global production, emission, and environmental inventory for perfluorooctane sulfonate". Environ. Sci. Technol. 43 (2): 386–92. doi:10.1021/es802216n. PMID 19238969.
  6. Jump up^ Kennedy GL, Butenhoff JL, Olsen GW, et al. (2004). "The toxicology of perfluorooctanoate". Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 34 (4): 351–84. doi:10.1080/10408440490464705. PMID 15328768.
  7. Jump up^ Giesy JP, Kannan K (April 2002). "Perfluorochemical surfactants in the environment". Environ. Sci. Technol. 36 (7): 146A–152A. doi:10.1021/es022253t. PMID 11999053.
  8. Jump up^ Lau C, Butenhoff JL, Rogers JM (July 2004). "The developmental toxicity of perfluoroalkyl acids and their derivatives". Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 198 (2): 231–41. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2003.11.031. PMID 15236955.
  9. Jump up^ "The Inside Story: 3M and Scotchgard". Environmental Working Group. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
  10. Jump up^ Aziz Ullah. "The Fluorochemical Dilemma: What the PFOS/PFOA fuss is all about"Cleaning & Restoration. www.ascr.org, (October, 2006). Accessed October 25, 2008.
  11. Jump up^ Lee, Jennifer 8. (15 April 2003). "E.P.A. Orders Companies to Examine Effects of Chemicals". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
  12. Jump up^ 3M: "PFOS-PFOA Information: What is 3M Doing?" Accessed October 25, 2008.
  13. Jump up^ Lim, Theodore Chao; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang (2011-10-26). "Emission Inventory for PFOS in China: Review of Past Methodologies and Suggestions". TheScientificWorldJournal. 11: 1963–1980. doi:10.1100/2011/868156. ISSN 1537-744X. PMC 3217613. PMID 22125449.
  14. Jump up^ Rayne S, Forest K, Friesen KJ (2008). "Congener-specific numbering systems for the environmentally relevant C1 through C8 perfluorinated homologue groups of alkyl sulfonates, carboxylates, telomer alcohols, olefins, and acids, and their derivatives". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 43 (12): 1391–1401. doi:10.1080/10934520802232030.
  15. Jump up^ Rayne S, Forest K, Friesen KJ (2009). "Estimated bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the C1 through C8 perfluorinated alkylsulfonic acid (PFSA) and alkylcarboxylic acid (PFCA) congeners". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 44 (6): 598–604. doi:10.1080/10934520902784641.
  16. Jump up^ Rayne S, Forest K, Friesen KJ (2009). "Linear free energy relationship based estimates for the congener specific relative reductive defluorination rates of perfluorinated alkyl compounds". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 44 (9): 866–879. doi:10.1080/10934520902958625.
  17. Jump up^ Rayne S, Forest K, Friesen KJ (2009). "Estimated congener specific gas phase atmospheric behavior and fractionation of perfluoroalkyl compounds: Rates of reaction with atmospheric oxidants, air-water partitioning, and wet/dry deposition lifetimes". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 44 (10): 936–954. doi:10.1080/10934520902996815.
  18. Jump up^ Rayne S, Forest K (2009). "Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids: A critical review of physicochemical properties, levels and patterns in waters and waste waters, and treatment methods". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 44 (12): 1145–1199. doi:10.1080/10934520903139811.
  19. Jump up^ Rayne S, Forest K (2009). "Congener specific organic carbon normalized soil and sediment-water partitioning coefficients for the C1 through C8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic and sulfonic acids". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 44 (13): 1374–1387. doi:10.1080/10934520903217229.
  20. Jump up^ Rayne S, Forest K (2009). "An assessment of organic solvent based equilibrium partitioning methods for predicting the bioconcentration behavior of perfluorinated sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids, and sulfonamides". Nature Precedings.
  21. Jump up^ Rayne S, Forest K (2009). "A comparative assessment of octanol-water partitioning and distribution constant estimation methods for perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates". Nature Precedings. doi:10.1038/npre.2009.3282.2.
  22. Jump up^ http://www.environment-switzerland.ch/uw-0922-e
  23. ^ Jump up to:a b OECD (2002). "Hazard Assessment of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and its Salt". ENV/JM/RD(2002)17/FINAL (page 5).
  24. ^ Jump up to:a b Betts KS (July 2008). "Not immune to PFOS effects?". Environ. Health Perspect.116 (7): A290. doi:10.1289/ehp.116-a290a. PMC 2453185. PMID 18629339.
  25. Jump up^ Peden-Adams, M.; Stuckey, J.; Gaworecki, K.; Berger-Ritchie, J.; Bryant, K.; Jodice, P.; Scott, T.; Ferrario, J.; Guan, B.; Vigo, C.; Boone, J. S.; McGuinn, W. D.; Dewitt, J. C.; Keil, D. E. (2009). "Developmental toxicity in white leghorn chickens following in ovo exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)". Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.). 27 (3–4): 307–318. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2008.10.009. PMID 19071210.
  26. Jump up^ Houde M, Martin JW, Letcher RJ, Solomon KR, Muir DC (June 2006). "Biological monitoring of polyfluoroalkyl substances: A review". Environ. Sci. Technol. 40 (11): 3463–73. doi:10.1021/es052580b. PMID 16786681. Supporting Information (PDF).
  27. Jump up^ Peden-Adams, M. M.; Keil, D. E.; Romano, T.; Mollenhauer, M. A. M.; Fort, D. J.; Guiney, P. D.; Houde, M.; Kannan, K.; Muir, D. C.; Rice, C. D.; Stuckey, J.; Segars, A. L.; Scott, T.; Talent, L.; Bossart, G. D.; Fair, P. A.; Keller, J. M. (2009). "Health effects of perfluorinated compounds—What are the wildlife telling us?". Reproductive Toxicology. 27 (3–4): 414–415. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2008.11.016.
  28. Jump up^ Peden-Adams et al. (June 2008). In PFAA Days II (PDF). p. 28.
  29. Jump up^ Fromme H, Tittlemier SA, Völkel W, Wilhelm M, Twardella D (May 2009). "Perfluorinated compounds—exposure assessment for the general population in Western countries". Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health. 212 (3): 239–70. doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2008.04.007. PMID 18565792.
  30. Jump up^ Olsen GW, Church TR, Miller JP, et al. (December 2003). "Perfluorooctanesulfonate and other fluorochemicals in the serum of American Red Cross adult blood donors". Environ. Health Perspect. 111 (16): 1892–901. doi:10.1289/ehp.6316. PMC 1241763. PMID 14644663.
  31. Jump up^ Betts KS (May 2007). "Perfluoroalkyl acids: what is the evidence telling us?". Environ. Health Perspect. 115 (5): A250–6. doi:10.1289/ehp.115-a250. PMC 1867999. PMID 17520044.
  32. Jump up^ Guruge KS, Hikono H, Shimada N, Murakami K, Hasegawa J, Yeung LW, Yamanaka N, Yamashita N (December 2009). "Effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on influenza A virus-induced mortality in female B6C3F1 mice". J Toxicol Sci. 34 (6): 687–91. doi:10.2131/jts.34.687. PMID 19952504.
  33. Jump up^ Betts K (November 2007). "PFOS and PFOA in humans: new study links prenatal exposure to lower birth weight". Environ Health Perspect. 115 (11): A550. doi:10.1289/ehp.115-a550a. PMC 2072861. PMID 18007977.
  34. Jump up^ Washino N, Saijo Y, Sasaki S, et al. (April 2009). "Correlations between prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and reduced fetal growth". Environ. Health Perspect. 117 (4): 660–7. doi:10.1289/ehp.11681. PMC 2679613. PMID 19440508.
  35. Jump up^ Renner, Rebecca (2008). "PFOS phaseout pays off". Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 (13): 4618. doi:10.1021/es0871614. PMID 18677976.
  36. Jump up^ Stein CR, Savitz DA, Dougan M (October 2009). "Serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and pregnancy outcome". Am. J. Epidemiol. 170 (7): 837–46. doi:10.1093/aje/kwp212. PMID 19692329.
  37. Jump up^ Dallaire R, Dewailly E, Pereg D, Dery S, Ayotte P (September 2009). "Thyroid function and plasma concentrations of polyhalogenated compounds in Inuit adults". Environ. Health Perspect. 117 (9): 1380–6. doi:10.1289/ehp.0900633. PMC 2737013. PMID 19750101.
  38. Jump up^ Steenland K, Tinker S, Frisbee S, Ducatman A, Vaccarino V (November 2009). "Association of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate with serum lipids among adults living near a chemical plant". Am. J. Epidemiol. 170 (10): 1268–78. doi:10.1093/aje/kwp279. PMID 19846564.
  39. Jump up^ Nelson JW, Hatch EE, Webster, TF (2009). "Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Cholesterol, Body Weight, and Insulin Resistance in the General U.S. Population"(PDF). Environ. Health Perspect. 118 (2): 197–202. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901165. PMC 2831917. PMID 20123614.
  40. Jump up^ Hoffman K, Webster TF, Weisskopf MG, Weinberg J, Vieira VM (2010). "Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in U.S. Children Aged 12-15 Years". Environ. Health Perspect. 118 (12): 1762–7. doi:10.1289/ehp.1001898. PMC 3002197. PMID 20551004.
  41. Jump up^ Renner R (March 2004). "Perfluorinated sources outside and inside". Environ. Sci. Technol. 38 (5): 80A. doi:10.1021/es040387w. PMID 15046317.
  42. Jump up^ Lehmler, HJ (March 2005). "Synthesis of environmentally relevant fluorinated surfactants—a review". Chemosphere. 58 (11): 1471–96. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.11.078. PMID 15694468.
  43. Jump up^ Pelley J (December 2004). "Canada moves to eliminate PFOS stain repellents". Environ. Sci. Technol. 38 (23): 452A. doi:10.1021/es040676k. PMID 15597866.
  44. Jump up^ "Lists of PFOS, PFAS, PFCA, related compounds and chemicals that may degrade to PFCA". OECD. August 2007. |section= ignored (help)
  45. Jump up^ Environmental Defence: "Stain Repellant Chemical, PFOS, Listed for “Virtual Elimination”" News Release. (April 21, 2008). Accessed October 26, 2008.
  46. Jump up^ SCHER (2005). "RPA's report "Perfluorooctane Sulphonates Risk reduction strategy and analysis of advantages and drawbacks"". Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks, European Commission.
  47. Jump up^ DIRECTIVE 2006/122/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 12 December 2006
  48. Jump up^ COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 552/2009 of 22 June 2009
  49. Jump up^ COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 757/2010 of 24 August 2010

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